COVID-19: Different clinical pictures
A new analysis shows that there are six different types of COVID-19, which each differ by a certain group of symptoms. The researchers also discovered that these types differ in the Severity of the disease.
As stated in a recent communication, the results have a significant impact on the clinical Management of COVID-19 and could help Physicians assess who is most at risk and in the case of a second wave of Coronavirus infection is likely to have a hospital care needed.
Three Main Symptoms
Although a persistent cough, fever, and loss of Smell (anosmia) are usually highlighted as the three main symptoms of COVID-19, show the data of App users, that after an infection with the Coronavirus SARD-CoV-2, a variety of different symptoms may occur, including headaches, muscle pain, fatigue, diarrhea, confusion, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, and more.
The progression and the results also vary significantly between people and can range from mild flu-like symptoms or a simple rash to severe or fatal diseases.
To find out if certain symptoms occur and how to this with the progression of the disease is related to the analysed, the research team under the direction of the King’s College London data from a sub-group of around 1,600 confirmed COVID-19-Patients in the UK and the USA, which have a record of your symptoms in March and April on a regular basis with the COVID Symptom Study App.
All of them had headache and loss of Smell
The analysis, which was published in the medical Preprint-Server “medRxiv”, revealed six specific groupings of symptoms, occurring at characteristic time points in the course of the disease, and six different “types” of COVID-19-represented.
The algorithm was then tested by being applied to a second independent data set of 1,000 App users in the UK, the USA and Sweden had logged her symptoms in may.
In the case of all persons who reported symptoms were headaches and loss of Smell, to be found with various times, different combinations of additional symptoms were. Some of them, such as confusion, abdominal pain, and shortness of breath, are not generally considered to be COVID-19-known symptoms, however, are the hallmarks of the most severe forms of the disease.
The six groupings are:
- (“Flu-like” without the fever): headache, loss of Smell, muscle pain, cough, sore throat, chest pain, no fever.
- (“Flu-like” with fever): headache, loss of Smell, cough, sore throat, hoarseness, fever, loss of appetite.
- (Gastro-intestinal): headaches, loss of Smell, loss of appetite, diarrhea, neck pain, chest pain, no cough.
- (severe degree one, exhaustion): headaches, loss of Smell, cough, fever, hoarseness, chest pain, fatigue.
- (severe degree two, confusion): headaches, loss of Smell, loss of appetite, cough, fever, hoarseness, neck pain, chest pain, tiredness, confusion, muscle pain.
- (severe degree three, stomach, and respiratory system): headaches, loss of Smell, loss of appetite, cough, fever, hoarseness, neck pain, chest pain, tiredness, confusion, muscle pain, shortness of breath, diarrhea, abdominal pain.
Severe Sufferers often had pre-existing conditions
Next, the Team examined whether people with certain symptom clusters are more likely to need respiratory support in the Form of mechanical ventilation or supplemental oxygen.
The scientists found that only 1.5 percent of people with Cluster 1, 4.4 percent of people with Cluster 2, and 3.3 percent of people required with Cluster 3 COVID-19 respiratory support. In the case of Cluster 4, 5 and 6, it was 8.6 percent, 9.9 percent and 19.8 percent. Furthermore, it showed that almost half of the Patients in Cluster 6 ended up in the hospital, compared with only 16 percent of the patients in Cluster 1.
In General, people with COVID goods-19-symptoms of cluster 4, 5 or 6, compared to the people from the first three groups tend to be older and frail, likely to be overweight and you have already had diseases existing diseases such as Diabetes or lung.
Early action can save lives
The researchers then developed a model that combined information on age, gender, BMI and pre-existing diseases with symptoms, which occur within just five days after the outbreak of the disease.
This was predict able to predict in which Cluster a patient or a Patient falls, and what’s the risk, that requires a hospital stay and respiratory support.
In view of the fact that most of the people, the respiratory support will need to come about 13 days after their first symptoms to the hospital, these additional eight days, a significant “early warning” of who need, most likely, a more intensive care, – stated in the message.
“These results have important implications for the care and observation of people who are most vulnerable to heavy COVID-19,” said Dr Claire Steves from King’s College London.
“If you can say on the fifth day before, who these people are, you have time to support you and to take early measures such as the Monitoring of blood oxygen and sugar content, and to ensure that they are sufficiently hydrated – a simple maintenance that can be done at home and hospital stays, prevents and saves lives.“
The second wave of Infection a step ahead
“Our study shows how important it is to monitor the symptoms over time, in order to make our predictions about the individual risk and the results more differentiated and more accurate,” said the senior researcher, Dr. Carole Sudre from the King’s College London. “This approach helps us to understand the history of this disease in each patient, so that he receives the best care,” said the expert.
“The ability to collect large amounts of data through the App and machine Learning is applied to them, has a profound influence on our understanding of the extent and impact of COVID-19 and human health in a broader sense,” explained Sebastien Ourselin, a Professor of health technology at the King’s College London.
Professor Tim Spector added: “data is our most powerful tool in the fight against COVID-19. We call on all to get used to it, to use the App in the coming months on a daily basis to monitor your health, so we are the local Hotspots, or a second wave of Infection is always a step ahead.“ (ad)